In the Sakhalin region, the effectiveness of the federal target program “Social and economic development of the Kuril Islands for 2016 – 2025” was assessed. The program, aimed at supporting business, transport links, and creating the necessary infrastructure on the islands, worked for five years. Living conditions of Kuril residents should become decent and comfortable, work should be accessible. The last five-year plan provided a fiber-optic line in Iturup, Kunashir and Shikotan, four kindergartens and a school, six residential buildings, a sports complex, two fire stations, more than 20 kilometers of track. Four more schools, medical facilities and roads are under construction. In 2020, 11 houses will be commissioned, and by 2023 all residents of the Kuril Islands will be provided with decent housing. Two new vessels will run between Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. This year, 5.9 billion rubles have been allocated for various purposes of the program (three quarters of this money will be allocated by the regional treasury).